LITHUANIA : SOVIET PERIOD : POSTMARKS


TYPES OF SOVIET CIRCULAR HAND-DATE-STAMPS

In an article -in German- F. Löhrich gives a schematic division of the Soviet hand-date-stamps in six types. An article of Aivars Cimermanis gives another division for the Latvian Soviet postmarks: this division is also useful for classification of the Lithuanian postmarks.
The first type are the Provisional postmarks
Type 1a: handwriting 'postmark' (not seen in Lithuania)
Type 1b: rubber-hand date=stamp (not seen in Lithuania)
Type 1c: old -interbellum period- postmarks are used

For the Soviet postmarks 1940-1941 we now have 'The Handbook' of Vytautas Fugalevičius and Martin Bechstedt

Type 12 White star, large, without ЛИТ ССР

  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is white (positive) star, so the hammer and sickle within the star are in black
  • Date is in a box with the left and right side rounded
  • One ring, large, diameter 30 mm.
  • Serial letter in script-letter
  • Without ЛИТ ССР (LIT. SSR)

Type 13 White star, small, without ЛИТ ССР (Cimermanis type PL-4)

  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is white (positive) star, so the hammer and sickle within the star are in black
  • The date is in a box with the left and right side rounded
  • Lines, date, and CCCP are normal thin letters
  • One ring, small, diameter 24-25 mm.
  • Serial letter in Latin typefaces
  • Without ЛИТ ССР (LIT. SSR)

Here left a postmark of Kaunas, 1941, from a card sent to Germany. This type: only KAUNAS C. Right a more clear illustration from the book of W. Fugalewitsch.

Type 14 Postmarks with date in rectangular box or curved sides,

This postmarks were made 1941.

  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is white (positive) star, so the hammer and sickle within the star are in black
  • The Lithuanian name on the left side, the Russian indication at the bottom. Also in these postmarks the abbreviation ЛИТ ССР [LIT. SSR] but on the right side.
  • Serial in little latin letter.
  • Left and right of CCCP at the top: a little star

Type 15

  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ), and here we see a clear example: the hammer and sickle within the star are white
  • One ring, small (25 mm)
  • serial latin
  • Also in these postmarks the abbreviation ЛИТ ССР [LIT. SSR]

Type 16

  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ), and here we see a clear example: the hammer and sickle within the star are white.
  • One ring, large
  • serial cyrillic
  • Also in these postmarks the abbreviation ЛИТ ССР [LIT. SSR]




Type 2 (Postmarks of the second generation Cimermanis type PL-3)

According Ričardas Vainora there were used only two types Soviet-Lithuanian date-stamps durung the period 1940-1941, this type 2 and next type 3.
This postmarks were made 1940-1941.

  • At the bottom is placed the abbreviation ЛИТ ССР (LIT. SSR).
  • The 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ), and here we see a clear example: the hammer and sickle within the star are white.
  • The date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded.
  • Lines, CCCP are fat
  • Left Lithuanian indication and right the Russian (see subtype 2a for the reverse !!)
  • One ray of the star is between CC and CP: in the later type 7 the whole star is more direct under CCCP.
  • Diameter 30 mm

These type postmarks is again made 1944/1945 and used till 1990.



Subtype 2a : Left Russian and right Lithanian indication
According R. Vainora is this type used after World War II and many postmarks were private property: so used for production of falsifications.


This is the postmark of СКАЙСТГИРИС ( [SKAISTGIRIS], the Lithuanian Skaistgiris.








Subtype 2b Postmarks of the first generation (Cimermanis type PL-1 and PL-2)
Main distinguishing mark: no indication of the Lithuanian Socialistic Soviet Republic.
The postmarks are used between 1945-1972.


The 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ), and here we see a clear example: the hammer and sickle within the star are white. The date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded.
This postmark of Vilnius: 29 mm in diameter.






Subtype 2c : only with Russian text. This postmark of Vilnius: 25 mm in diameter.














Type 4 Postmark in another outlook (Cimermanis type PL-5)

This type, one-ring, has the date free-standing in the center. The star is black (negative). Not reported for Lithuania, but in the article of Cimermanis we see: name of place in Latvian on the right side, at the bottom the abbreviation ЛАТ ССР [LAT. SSR] and 25 mm in diameter.





Type 5 Postmark in another outlook (Cimermanis type PL-6)

This type, one-ring, has also the date in the center without box. The star is black (negative). Main difference: the text is in two rows. Name of place in Lithuanian in the first row, under it the Russian indication.. At the right side we see the abbreviation ЛИТ ССР [LIT. SSR].
33-35 mm in diameter.
Here a postmark of Kaunas on the backside of a cover returned to sender.

From Estonia is this type known with the date in a box with the left and right side rounded and also with date between two parallel lines.






Type 6 Postmarks of the third generation (Cimermanis type PL-7)

This type we see at first about the end of the sixties. The star is more under the indication CCCP (in type 2 one ray of the is more between CC and CP. Also there is used another letter-type. With the date is also now the time (hour) indicated.
The date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded. There are used more serial-letters: for identification of the post-officials.







Type 7 Postmarks of the fourth generation (Cimermanis type PL-8)

Main distinguishing mark: date between two parallel lines.
An new type, first used middle of the sixties together with the postmarks of the third generation. The greatest difference: a one circle-postmark without datum-box, but the date between two parallel lines.
Soviet indication is placed left, Lithuanian indication on the right side. The serial-letter is placed under the date as small letter of the Russian alphabet.
This postmark is used till 1990.
30 mm in diameter
In the article of F. Löhrich also are mentioned a type with one line above the date and a type with one line under the date: I think these are rather unclear postmarks and not a possible subtype.




MACHINE-CANCELS

Further we have of course the machine-cancellations.Here the postmark of Zarasai. The machine-postmarks of the Soviet period are to divide in types like the handstamps above, but the top is rotated 90 degrees. This postmark with three wave-lines is a table-cancelationmachine. This kind of machines is in order about the beginning of 1976. The type SchMN-2 can be an indication that it is maybe the second Soviet-made cancellationmachine. Different types of machine-postmarks see:
Radviliškis
About the Soviet Machine-cancellations:

  • Die Beschreibung sowjetischer Machinenstempel mit Einkreis stempelkopf / F. Löhrisch. - In: Russisch-Sowjetische Philatelie 1980 ; nr. 23. - p. 35



FRANKING METER MARKS (POSTAL METERS)
See: Franking meter marks

RAILWAY POSTMARKS OF THE SOVIET PERIOD
Article about this subject:

  • Spoorpost in Litouwen 9 : Sovjet periode / Jan Kaptein, Eugenijus Uspuras. - In: Het Baltische Gebied 2008 ; 52. - p. 20-39. - (in Dutch). - [ overview, description of postmarks, lines, many illustrations of covers, tables, railway cards]


COMMEMORATIVE CANCELS

At least we find of course many commemorative cancels used in Lithuania during the Soviet period. An overview:

  • Pašta Antspaudai Lietuvoj = P.O. Cancels in Lithuania / V. Fugalevičius. - 1990. - 2th ed. - p. 296-306



In 1938 a circular of the People's Commissioner of Communication decided the making of the date-stamps: 'the hammer and sickle', five-ray soviet star and the indication CCCP.
An additional circular of the People's Commissiones on 8 april gave more details: hammer and sickle in the center of the 5-ray soviet star and the star on the top of the postmark between the letters CCCP.
At the bottom of the postmark: indication of the postoffice and in the center a border around the date (box). Under the 'box' with date must be placed the serial letter.
The date was indicated with 6 numerals, later 2 were added for time.
With this circular also came an end of the production of oval postmarks.



ALANTA

Original print size of this image: 16,493 x 11,642 cm (is something more as the postal item)




This picture and all pictures below on this page, if not mentioned otherwise: scanned about 300 dpi. Then set right and cut out - noted the actual print size-, resized 25 % of this image and saved as jpg



The postmark: resized 50%.
It is clearly type 7
(see above).



АЛАНТА [ALANTA], a small town in Molėtai district municipality. On an old railway map (see:period 1918-1940 we see the name Alunta, on the crossroad between Molėtai (here Malėtai)-Anykščiai and Utena-Ukmergė. Alunta is the Aukštaitian (dialect) name for Alanta. Aukštaitija ('Highlands') is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania: northeastern part of Lithuania.

The postmark you see not so often: according the census of 2001 - see Wikipedia- Alanta had 464 residents.



ALYTUS

This cover is sent from Alytus to Kaunas.

Original print size of this image: 15,934 x 11,108 cm (is something more as the postal item)






The postmark, resized 50%, is clearly type 2a
(see above): the 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ), and left tyhe Russian indication, right the Lithuanian.

There is also a serial-number: АЛИТУС 1





















From my МАЛЫЙ АТЛАС СССР [MALYI] = little [ATLAS SSSR], issued Moscow 1973: a detail of the map of the Lithuanian SSR.

АЛИТУС [ALYTUS] is situated in southern Lithuania.
The distance from Alytus to Vilnius -on this map in the right corner above, ВИЛЬИЮС [VILNIYUS] - is 105 km.


Lithuania - the reference book on Soviet Lithuania-
(see literature below, p. 75):
"Alytus is located in the south of the Lithuanian SSR on the banks of the Nemunas River. A raion centre, it has a territory of 34 sq km and a population of 64,000 (1983). ...
In 1918 a revolutionary committee functioned in the city. In 1919-50 Alytus was a district administrative centre."

Alytus is now also the capital of Alytus County.



ARIOGALA

Cover from Ariogala.


Original print size of this image: 16,087 x 11,743 cm (is something more as the postal item)



The postmark: resized 50%.


Ariogale is the Lithuanian name. In Russian it was ЭЙРАЛОЛА [EHIRAGOLA]. The Polish name is Ejragola and looks like the Russian name.
In the postmark: АРИОГАЛА [ARIOGOLA], located in the district Raseiniai in central Lithuania.


Ariogala can also written as АРГАЛА ; early in the fifties the description of the Lithuanian names in Cyrillic characters was uniformed.

Here we see a machine-postmark. Ariogala is one of the oldest Lithuanian settlements, already mentioned in 1252 or 1253.




DAUKŠIAI


Cover, send from ДАУКШЯЙ [DAUKSHYAI], the Lithuanian Daukšiai, to Baltimore.

Original print size of this image: 16,010 x 11,337 cm (is something more as the postal item)

The postmark: resized 50%.





When a cover is registered and send to a foreign country, yoy see in the registering-stamp (or label) used a 'R' , short for Recommandé, instead of a З, short for ' ЗАКАЗНОЕ [ZAKAZNOE], registered.


On the cover you see also the handstamp 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ (MEZADUNARODNOE), that means 'International '(mail). David Skipton has written an article about this and means that is was used as control-mark for mail to foreigh countries. In his theory is proposed that the damages and nicks of the postmark was used to identify the censor. P.J. Campbell goes further on this way. Olav Petri gives some indications (in HBG, article in Dutch) to support the theory: the handstamp is also used for mail coming into the Sovjet Union and it is not used after 1998. The last is an indication that the handstamp had not a postal meaning and from this time not was needed for controlling the mail.


Literature about 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ:

  • The "MEZhDUNARODNOE" Markings / by David M. Skipton. - In: Rossica 1995 ; no. 125. - p. 6-18
  • 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ Revisited / by P.J. Campbell. - In: Rossica 1997 ; no. 128-129. - p/ 134-154
  • Een onschuldig lijkend stempel met een vreemde geschiedenis, alias een filatelistische hulpkreet / Olav Petri. - In: Het Baltische Gebied 2007 ; 50. - p. 22-23

Daukšiai is the name of a village in Kaunas County (8 inhabitants) or a town in Marijampolė County (310 inhabitants).



DEBEIKIAI

Original print size of this image: 16,391 x 11,718 cm (is something more as the postal item)




The postmark, resized 50%.


In the postmark is indicated also: ДЕБЕЙКЯЙ [DEBEIKIAI].
Debeikiai is located in the district Anykščiai.







The envelope is send from Kavarskas (see further).




DRUSKININKAI

Original print size of this image: 16,315 x 11,641 cm (is something more as the postal item)



The postmark, resized 50%.


In the postmark is also indicated ДРУСКИНИНКАЙ [DRUSKININKAI].










Druskininkai is located in district Varea, in the south of Lithuania. On the Soviet atlas
above ДРУСКИНИНКАЙ is near the southern border.
Lithuania - the reference book on Soviet Lithuania- (see literature below, p. 77):
"Druskininkai is a city in the south of the Lithuanian SSR on the right bank of the Nemunas River, seven kilometres from the border with the Byelorussian SSR. It has an area of 18 sq km. Druskininkai is a climatobalneopeloid health resort, open all year round. Mineral water ....
In 1920-39 the settlement was part of the Vilnius territory occupied by bourgeois Poland. From October 1939 to August 1940 Druskininkai belonged to the Byelorussian SSR.
In the Soviet period the city has grown significantly. In 1950-55 it was a raion centre. In 1897 there were 1,280 inhabitants; in 1959, 5,765; in 1970, 11,200."



ELEKTRĖNAI